We thank Mr. Courtney for his hard work and diligence on this overview of the life and times of Thomas Hudson Barron
THOMAS HUDSON BARRON
MARY JANE SHELTON BARRON
Thomas Hudson Barron probably was born 8 Mar 1796 in Virginia.1 , 2 There is some dispute about his parentage, with some sources claiming his parents were John and Nancy Caroline Barron, 3 but the following letter, from one of his nephews to another, at least appears to set the matter straight. 4
April the 30 1893
it is with pleure that i take this oportunity of riting you a few lines to let you now how i am at this time i am btter than i was have bin sick all winter and part of the time the folks did not think i could get well i hav not set up But vary liitle sense in December i was glad to hear from you when I got yore other letter i was vary low with kidney diseas and other diseases with it you wanted to now what grandmother Barrons maden name it was Susan Matenly and she was from maryland and from thare to kentucky she first married a man Bythe name—Joseph dixen they had 4 children three girls and one Boy his name was Joseph and the girls all got marrid the oldest Sopha marrid a man of david allen any marrid William Johnsen and trudey marrid John metcalf dixen died and and she Grand Father Barron they had three cildren uncle thomas and father and aunt martha she marrid a man By the name of Samuel griffin and shee had one child and they boath died and dont now what Become of the child this is all i now a bout them
i hav heard that wee had indian blood in us Butt i was a shame to tell it i want to now whether you hear of that g____ anything that father had well it is geting late and this is all that i can think of the relation is all well as fare as i no if i now anything more tha you want to now i can find out from uncle Mathew ____ll well I will close.
Yors truly B. F. Barron to
m. k. Barron
Thomas Barron volunteered in the Kentucky Militia as a private in the 13th Regiment under Captain William Ganaway and served from 15 Nov 1814 to 15 May 1815. 5 He participated in the Battle of New Orleans. 6 Some disagreement has surfaced concerning the identity of Barron’s first wife. Elizabeth Carnall was born ca. 1804 7 and married Thomas Barron in Arkansas Territory on 20 Feb 1820. 8 She reportedly was the daughter of Patrick Carnall and Mary Dixon. There were at least two other persons named Carnall living in Miller County, Arkansas Territory, during this period, including J. H. Carnall, and A. Carnall. 9 Beyond the fact that Patrick Carnall is encountered later in the Texas record, no further record has been found of the Carnalls (while exploring the Barron family).
Elizabeth died 22 Mar 1846 in Falls Co., TX; her remains were buried “in the post oaks” at the falls of the Brazos River. 8 It should be noted that, in the intervening time, the falls actually migrated from an uncertain location to their current site.
Mary Jane Shelton was born in 1829 or 1830 and was the daughter of A. M. and Elizabeth Shelton of Tennessee. 7 She was married to Thomas Barron on 3 Sept 1846 in Falls Co. at the falls of the Brazos. 8
The Arkansas Period
Numerous records indicate a man named Thomas Barron resided in Miller Co., Arkansas Territory, from at least as early as 1817 until the late 1820s. The records, some of which are described below, seem adequate to demonstrate that this man was Thomas Hudson Barron.
The area that comprised the first Miller Co. lay generally along the Red River in what would become northeastern Texas, southeastern Oklahoma, and southwestern Arkansas. Settlers looked generally to Washington, Arkansas Territory, for their governance during this period. 10 The early white settlers in Miller County were interlopers—they were living illegally either in Spanish Texas (south of the Red River) or on Indian lands (north of the river). The settlers included backwoodsmen and hunters from Tennessee and Kentucky who came by way of Arkansas and Missouri. They were driven, by severe military actions, from the north side of the Red River by the United States Army in 1820 to clear the land in response to the protests of a Caddo chief. Homes were burned, and crops were destroyed.
Caleb Greenwood, a hunter, settled with his family in the western part of the region, near what would become the Jonesborough settlement. 10 Having come no later than 1817, he was one of the earlier settlers. Among his sons-in-law was a man named Thomas Barron. No further record is available to relate Thomas Barron to the Greenwood family.
Barron was one of several hundred area residents who signed a petition in 1825 to the President of the United States. Part of the land in the region had been ceded to the Choctaw Indians. The petition asked that land be repurchased by the U. S. (to allow the settlers to remain on their lands.) 9
Barron was appointed as a Miller County magistrate on 8 Mar 1826. He was listed as residing then in the Jefferson township. 12
Barron’s name also appears on the List of County and Territorial Taxes for Hempstead County, Arkansas Territory in 1828. His reported county taxes were $106.1/4, while another $25 was due for the territorial taxes.
There is substantial evidence to support the claim that Thomas Hudson Barron was the same man described in the above situations. Some of the evidence follows.
After the Miller County settlers ultimately were unable to prevail in getting the land from the Indians, many of them left the area. Stephen F. Austin, who had numerous connections in the area, 10, 24 undoubtedly had some influence in their choice of destinations; many moved to the colonies of Mexican Texas in the mid-1820s to the early 1830s. 25
GTT: Gone to Texas
The Family Registrar of Stephen F. Austin’s Colony as found in the General Land Office of Texas shows that Thomas Barron and his wife, Elizabeth, came from Arkansas and joined the Austin Colony in 1831. 23 They had four children at the time. 26
Some evidence suggests that the Barrons may have removed to Texas prior to 1831. First, an associate, J. G. W. Pierson, had come in 1829, along with others from Arkansas. 7 Secondly, Barron was “visiting” in the Red River region in 1829, perhaps indicating that he already had left. 21 On this occasion he came upon a spectacular sight. The imminent 19th-century Texas historian, John Henry Brown, described a fight near the Waco Indian village in Texas, to where a group of some 55 Cherokees from the Red River area had gone to capture horses from the Wacos. The Tehuacanos had come to the rescue of the Wacos, only to be routed and to have numerous warriors lose their scalps to the Cherokees. Back at their camp in the Red River area, the Cherokees celebrated their great victory.
“The tribe was speedily called together for a grand war-dance. For miles around the American settlers were surprised to see such a commotion and gathering among the Indians. A gentleman, my informant, was there visiting a widowed sister. He rode up to the Cherokee encampment, inquired into the cause of the movement, was invited to alight and spend the day. He did so, and witnessed one of the grandest wardances he ever saw, and he was an old Indian fighter. A very intelligent man, a half-breed named Chisholm, one of the fifty-five, gave him a full history of the whole transaction. He noted it carefully, and from him I received it in 1855.
“That gentleman was Capt. Thomas H. Barron, formerly of Washington County, then residing near Waco. When he first visited Waco in 1834, he at once recognized the battle-ground and sink-hole as described by Chisholm.”,
On 16 Nov 1832, Barron appeared in the Town of San Felipe de Austin and made oath for a land grant. The grant, awarded on 1 Dec 1832, was for one league of land. It was “situated east of the Brazos River, north of the Navasota and adjacent to the Bexar Road.” This was the land touched by that owned by Colbert Baker. 22
In addition to this, Barron received some additional land in Robertson’s colony. A 24-labor tract of land that now lies in McLennan County was deeded on 25 Mar 1835. 17 A grant of one labor of land in Sterling Robertson’s colony on 10 June 1835 27 ceded land that lay along the Brazos River, just above the inlet of Gleason’s Creek; it was the fourth plot northeast of the settlement of Sarahville de Viesca. The Gholson family had the plot adjacent to the settlement, and Sterling Robertson had the second. Barron and Robertson also were together buying land from other settlers. 17
John Barron also received land in the area. His tract was northwest of that of Thomas Barron’s labor of land and was on the Main Bosque River. He received 6-1/4 labors on 10 Aug 1835. 28
Viesca was Robertson’s first headquarters village. It was built in 1834 on the site of a former Tehuacano village, south of present-day Marlin at the falls of the Brazos. (Recall that the falls relocated after the river changed its course in the 1860s. The name of the community was changed to Fort Milam in December, 1835, to honor Ben Milam, who had fallen at the capture of San Antonio by the Texian army at the outset of the revolution. Fort Milam remained small. “In its heyday, old Viesca was the home of Patriots who braved the terrors of a terrible time.” Farther south lay Nashville on the Brazos, which became after 1834 the most important settlement in Robertson’s Colony. Nashville, in fact, missed becoming capital of the Republic of Texas by two votes! 29
After the capture of San Antonio in December, 1845, a convention was called, to be assembled at Washington on the Brazos. Thomas and John Barron voted in the election for delegates to represent Milam. Robertson and George C. Childress were elected. Interestingly, Childress left something behind, and he wrote to Robertson, requesting, “When you come down to the Convention please ask Mrs Barron (not identified further) for a big yellow pocket book of mine…and a black handkerchief.” 30
The Texas Rangers
The record of Thomas Barron’s service in the Ranger Company is detailed in business matters but lacking in actual stories of what the men actually did in their day-to-day lives. There is little published material that provides information about the battles between Barron’s ranger outfits and the Indians.
From the outset, Robertson’s colonists had been harassed constantly by hostile Indians. The settlements were small, and the protection was but slight. The Indians would raid the forts unexpectedly and often inflict casualties. At the end of a religious service at Nashville, for example, Indians raided the fort and killed two men in the congregation. The surviving men ran to their horses to chase down and kill the warriors. 29 Barron had joined Sterling Robertson’s company of ranging riflemen in 1835, serving as First Sergeant. 31 During this time he apparently once escaped with his life, but not his horse, as shown in the following. 32
Milam 7th of Febr 1837
This is to certify that when T. H. Barron was Orderly Sergeant of Capt. Robertsons Company of Rangers that I loaned to him for the use of the company a Bay mare valued at forty five dollars and I was informed the Indians stole her and he had credited for that amount.
John A. Graves (?)
This is to certify that we belonged to Capt Robertsons Com of Rangers and was in Tenoxtitlan when the above animal was stolen by the indians as the sd Barron was on his way to the company with ammunition for the same
$45.00 for horse Warren Lyman (?)
John R. Cocksill
While the ranger companies had been formed for protection against Indian raids, the focus soon shifted to the coming menace of the Mexican army as the Texans moved closer to revolt. Robertson had gone into the United States in an attempt to recruit men willing to fight for Texas independence. 29 The rangers by this time had been drawn into the Texian army.
After the fall of San Antonio and the Alamo to Santa Anna’s troops on 6 Mar 1836, the army of the newly born Republic of Texas was in disarray. They were fleeing the advance of the Mexicans—or at least that was the appearance. Ahead of the Mexicans, panic set in among the Texans. Some of the soldiers were dispatched to escort families out of the Texas lands and into Louisiana, in the so-called “Runaway Scrape.” Benjamin Franklin Gholson describes what happened to his father, Albert G. Gholson. 33
“When the war broke out between the Americans and the Government of Mexico my father enlisted in Captain Cary White’s company of volunteers…Captain Tom Barron enlisted a company of volunteers at or near Fort Washington. These volunteers elected their officers and a majority vote was cast for Albert G. Gholson for First Lieutenant under Captain Barron.
“During the ‘Runaway Scrape,’ some meaning to move their families and such property as they could out of the way of the Mexicans, were excused for that purpose. Captain Barron being a middle-aged man had several in his family as well as some negro property to be moved and accordingly was one of those excused to give what assistance he could to his family. This left Albert G. Gholson in command of the company. In a short time the Battle of San Jacinto took place and he commanded the company on that occasion, for, as said before, the battle took place during the absence of Captain Barron and others.”According to the complete story, Barron missed a whale of a battle, albeit a very one-sided fight. Gholson related the story of his father’s experience in the thick of the firing at Vince’s Bridge. 34
“He says that there was a wholesale capture of Mexicans there and that it will never be known just how many were killed in the bayou. I remember a conversation between my father and a comrade of his about this very subject. The other man said, ‘I was stationed below where the main fighting took place, and I’ll declare to you, Albert, from the blood that was coming down that stream it seemed that two thousand men had been killed.’ ‘Yes,’ replied my father, ‘but there were many horses shot, too, and some of the blood you saw was from them.’
While Gholson had Barron as the captain of his company, there appears to be contrary evidence. It seems to be established that Barron became a captain only after the resignation of Robertson after the war. 14 An unfortunately unclear copy of Barron’s discharge from Robertson’s ranger company has an illegible date that is, perhaps, after the war. 35
This is to certify that Thomas H. Barron was orderly sergeant in my company and has faithfully discharged his duty from the (___) June last and (____horse?) and his is honorably discharged
Sept (___)th 183(6?) Sterling C. Robertson
Capt of Rangers
Further, there is reference to Robertson’s ranger company (obviously prior to his resignation) in the summer of 1836. 36 In his memoirs, George Washington Morgan told about a battle between Robertson’s rangers and the Indians on Little River. No one was killed or injured on this occasion; the rangers did manage to recapture 9 – 10 horses that the Indians had stolen from the settlers.
The service record is much clearer, in any event, for the 12-month period commencing in October, 1836. After the brief war of independence, the Republic of Texas began to organize its government to carry out the everyday affairs of the citizens. One of the priority items was to provide for the defense of the settlements from Indian attacks. About 1 Oct 1836 a company of rangers was organized under the command of Thomas H. Barron. That month he, along with two lieutenants and 41 enlisted men, moved into Fort Milam. 37 In his command were his son, John M. Barron, and Patrick T. “Carnill.” 19
The need for protection from the Indians was real. Even near Fort Milam the Indians harassed the citizens regularly. In the fall of 1836, James Coryell and two fellow rangers from Fort Milam went several hundred yards outside the fort to cut down a bee tree. The three were attacked by Indians, and only Coryell, who couldn’t run, survived the fight. 18 To address the problem and to formalize the appointments of the ranger officers, President Sam Houston sent a message to the Senate, meeting in secret session. 38
I take pleasure in communicating to your honourable body the following list of nominations, to officer the Battalion of Mounted Riflemen, created by the late law of Congress, in which I ask the concurrence of the Senate.
The complete list of appointments had been proposed by Acting Secretary of War William S. Fisher on 7 Dec 1836, and agreed to by Houston. Included in the list were officers proposed for the Fourth Company: Thomas H. Barron Captain, Charles Curtis First Lieutenant, and David W. Campbell Second Lieutenant. The Senate confirmed the nominations as proposed by Houston.
The act having authorized the ranger battalion of 280 men had been passed by the legislature on 5 Dec 1836. The term of service was 12 months. Each man was “to furnish himself with a suitable, serviceable horse, a good rifle, and one brace of pistols.” 39
Seemingly, though, the government had not done enough, according to a letter written to Sterling Robertson by Barron. 19
Nashville December __th 22 1836
You will be informed by the bearer of the unfortunate circumstances of the murder of Mr. (John B.) Harvey and family they were kiled by the Indians a few days ago & as there was Noe person Left to tell the news we Cant ascertain the day or Knight that the Depredation were Committed tho it is certain it is done…We ar with out Clothing ammunition or provision and it under these Circumstances is expected of us to Guard a frontier of 170 miles and Charged with Letting the indi(ans) Come in…I am trying to raise volunteers to join my Company and follow them Indians and if I raise None I will follow them and find where they go…
Thos. H. Barron
Comd at Tenoxtitlan
In spite of the shortage of men, there was no shortage of fighting spirit among the settlers they were protecting, as shown in the following account of ranger life by N. C. Duncan. 40“A great many families congregated at Wheelock…Of course there were numbers of boys in these families who had nothing to do and no way to occupy their time only in fighting with each other, so Capt. Barron detailed Mr. Fitch to teach a school for these children. He had a small school house and a very few pupils who were advanced far enough to ‘cipher.’…Those who could were stationed out under to trees to ‘cipher’ and watch for Indians.”
Duncan went on to explain how he still could remember so many details. “Those were times that tried men’s mettle and the impressions they made stays with me.”
The ranger commander, Major William H. Smith, had decided that a string of outposts would better serve the citizens. A group of Capt. Barron’s men under Orderly Sergeant George B. Erath was sent to the area of the Little River settlement and there established a fort in November. Barron’s company then was dispatched by Secretary Fisher in January, 1837, to the former site of the Waco Indian Village. At that location the men built a small fort, which they named Fort Fisher. Erath described the operation. 40
“We were ordered…to establish a fort at Waco Village. We were three weeks coming up, having found it necessary to cut a road and build a bridge over Cow bayou. We expected to occupy the fort permanently. Waco was in the possession of buffalo, and only a short time before had been vacated by the Waco Indians; corn stalks were found in the fields they had cultivated, and peach trees were growing where the city now stands.
“We built some shanties for barracks near the big spring on the river, but only remained there three weeks, when an order came from the Secretary of War for us to return to the falls, as we were too far out to good service.”
As those frontier outposts were abandoned, Fort Milam came back under Barron’s command. In the summer of 1837 it probably had a considerable garrison. The rangers’ enlistments began to expire in September, and by October most of the men had returned to their farms, to collect their land bounties, or to depart for the United States. The fort was soon abandoned. 37
Barron resigned his commission on 16 Oct 1837; on the same date, the resignation was accepted. 42 Head Quarters Battn of Rangers
Nashville Oct 16th 1837
To Major Wm H. Smith
Sir I resign the commission granded me on the 14th Decr 1836 and in which capacity I have acted up to this above date.
Thomas H. Barron
Wm H Smith Major
Comp Battn of Rangers
Capt Thomas H. Barron,
In accordance with instructions from the Honr M. B (___) Secty of War you are relieved from this command of Company ( ) Battn of Rangers as the necessity for keeping troops on the frontier no longer exists at the same time I say with great pleasure your services shall ever be duly appreciated.
Head Quarters Battn of Rangers Wm H Smith Major
Nashville 16th Octr 1837 Comp Battn of Rangers
While Barron and his comrades had left their military service, there obviously was a continued need for vigilance. A petition, of which Barron was a signer, was sent in 1838 to the Congress of the Republic. 16
“The undersigned petitioners, citizens of the county of Milam…would most sincerely request that your honorable body take into immediate consideration their deplorable and unprotected Condition…They are almost daily visited and Harassed by a Savage foe, who seeks and avails himself of every opportunity to embrue his hands in the blood of the White Man…our old men have been killed and Scalped under our immediate inspection. Many of our young men have alike fallen Victims to the Tomahawk and Scalping Knife. Our innocent children with their Mothers have alike been captured and driven off…”
The Years Afterward
Finally, the Indians began to drift away, and relative peace began to settle upon the area. The people were by then able to get on with their lives. A brand-new and apparently grateful Republic of Texas remembered those whose service had gained their independence and secured their frontiers. Thomas Barron was able to ejoy the fruits of their sacrifices. He was due some significant compensation in reimbursement for some of his expenses during the revolution. Additionally, there was a matter of bounty lands for services to the Republic.Apparently the salary for his commission was paid as a lump sum after the period of the service. The actual pay voucher 43 (no date legible) reads as follows:
Republic of Texas
To Thomas H. Barron
To (___) as Captain
from 1st Oct 1836 to 16th Oct 1837
12 months and 1 day at $26 per month $312.86
To F(___) from 1st Oct 1836 to 30th April 1837
7 months at 2-1/2 (___) per month 17-1/2 (___) at $6 105.00
To F(___) from 1st May to 30 Sept 1837
5 months at ¾ (___) per month 3-3/4 (___) at $6 22.50
T F(___) from 1st Oct to 16th Oct 1837
15 days at 2-1/2 (___) per month 1-1/4(___) at $6 7.50
Wm H Smith (___)
Major Comp Battn of Rangers (___)
Charles Mason (?)
Ast Secy of (___)
However, perhaps reminiscent of George Washington’s expense bill after voluntary services in the American Revolutionary army, Barron also had his expenses for the period of services. One 44 read as follows:
Recd of Capt Thos H. Barron the use of wagon and team two hundred thirteen days at four dollars per day also one hundred and five days @ seven dollars per day also eight hundred lbs of beef @ five cents per lb also eight hundred and seventy five lbs of Pork @ six cents per pound all for the use of Batt of Rangers also for the use of black smith tools for 12 months fifty dollars
QMaster of Batt of Rangers
for use of wagon (___) an provisions
Several other documents not show here describe additional compensation or reimbursement for Barron’s services to the Republic. All told they would represent several thousand dollars.But above and beyond the cash payments were the land bounties provided for the persons who had served. Under Bounty Warrant 4065, Barron received a 320-acre plot in McLennan Co. for services from 18 Jun to 10 Sept 1836 (patented on 6 Feb 1846). Under Bounty Warrant 4066, he received a plot of 1280 acres for services from 14 Dec 1836 to 11 Oct 1837 (patented on 19 Sept 1845). 47 One additional bounty was granted for some unspecified services, “a claim of services in Lieutenant Teal’s detachment in 1845 amounting to Sixty Dollars.” 46
Numerous power struggles developed as the newly born Republic emerged. Animosity apparently developed between Robertson and some public officials in the government. The Land Commissioner, John P. Borden, was desperate to obtain some records concerning Robertson’s colony. In October, 1837, he wrote to Robert Henry, requesting that Henry get the papers in the possession of Thomas Barron and J. G. W. Pierson. Henry wrote back in November, stating that he had not yet spoken with Pierson, but that he had gone to Barron’s home and demanded that any books or papers be turned over. Barron refused to give them up, explaining that none of it would be of any use to Henry. 47
Robertson also was involved in a lawsuit involving Sam Houston. In the suit Joseph L. Hood gave an affidavit on 1 May 1839 (suggesting that not all details of their existence were exactly life-and-death matters). 28 A note had been given by Robertson to M. Caselman:
for a Hog kiled by Thos H Barron or Family, and that said Hog weighed one hundred sixty pounds and that said Robertson gave his not(e) to settle a Dificulty that was about to be betwn Caselman and Barron.
A period of seeming great sadness was to come to Barron beginning ca. 1838; he suffered numerous losses over the next decade. Eliza, the first daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth, died in 1838 or 1839. Elizabeth died 22 Mar 1846, and was buried at the falls of the Brazos. Two of his sons soon died; Joseph died in 1846, and John, in 1846 or 1847. Nancy Caroline’s son, Tommy, was run over by a wagon and killed a few years later. 20
Barron married Mary Jane Shelton on 3 Sept 1846 at the falls of the Brazos. 20 They soon removed to the developing town of Waco. They settled in 1848 north of the original town tract, which was described as the first “white” dwelling in Waco. 48
Major George B. Erath described the early settlement at Waco and his laying out of the town site. 41 There were at that time about twenty families in what is now McLennan County. Captain Barron lived immediately above the town tract. No one lived on the land at the time. Native post oaks, peach trees planted by the Indians, bones, and old Indian fortifications were about. The family of Captain Ross and several other families were camped on the east side of the river ready to move into town, and on the day I surveyed it three or four men stood by and walked along with me carrying axes, ready to go to housebuilding. John McLennan, eldest son of Neill, who had accompanied me on many surveying trips, was then sheriff of Milam County to which the territory of McLennan County belonged. He was my principal assistant in laying off the town.
The Barron home was by a spring at Barron’s Branch, a small creek that still bears his name today. The spring, which was used until it was covered up in the 1870s, was known for its great volume and its extremely cold water. 49 By now, however, Barron had sold off much of the lands to Neill McLennan. The 1280-acre bounty land was sold in 1841 for $500. 50 Another parcel was sold in 1849 for $1000. 51
As has been alluded to above, Barron was a slaveholder. The extent of his slave holdings is unknown. The author has reviewed one document that is allegedly a bill of sale wherein a slave was sold; however, the source of the document is considered unreliable. 52
In Waco Barron engaged in some civic and entrepreneur pursuits. After McLennan County was formed, he served as District Clerk at least during the first session of the court. 53, 54 Barron also built a steam mill at Barron’s Branch. “Barron’s mill ground wheat and corn, but in 1860 he expanded it to include machinery for carding cotton and wool.”55
While in Waco, the Barron family continued to grow. Children born during this time included Mozella, Ronchalia, Ellen, Serena, Robert (who died young), and Lou.
After Lou’s birth the family moved to a farm near the Blevins community in what would become Falls County—they were here when the next child, Viola, was born. Born here also were Josephine and Lycurgus (born in 1867). 3
While the family was growing, tragedies continued to take their toll. Milam, a twin brother of Travis, went away to fight for the Confederate army during the Civil War and was killed. 3 Another son, David Sealy Barron, died in the yellow fever epidemic that broke out in 1867 along the Texas coast. The account of his death (at least the details) did not reach the Barrons for some time, as shown in the following letter. 56 Oakville Sept 21, 1870
Mrs. A. O. Crudup
I hope you will pardon this little liberty. By last mail I received a letter from our mutual friend Col. S. B. Camp through which I learned of you. He informs me that David B(___), who died in my house in the town of St. Marys in 1867 was a brother of yours, also that your father resides at Waco. I learned from your brother before his death that his father lived at or near Waco, to whom I addressed a letter soon after your brother died but got no answer, and thought there must be some mistake. The particulars of your brother’s death is as follows, he was living at St. Marys during the yellow fever epidemic. The port of St Marys was free from sickness but strictly quarantined by land and sea. However a small schooner was dispatched from St Marys to Indianola by military order and your brother accompanied her as a deck hand. On his return I went aboard (being health officer of the port) and found all aboard sick. The cargo was landed and the vessel discharged. Your brother had no friend to care for him, those with whom he had been living and for whom he had been at work refused to do anything for him. I took him to my house and for ten days I was his physician and nurse. No one came near except my wife, he recovered and was doing well, in fact was well. I was called away, left him early in the morning with the positive instructions not to leave the room until I returned but, alas, the too oft occurrence of “unheeded advice,” he left the house to procure some tobacco, and on his way back to his room was drenched to the skin by a sudden (___) of rain. On my return in the evening I found him in bed with fever and (_____). I examined him and learned what he had done, and informed him that I thought he was a doomed man, which prediction was verified about (___) after four o’clock the next morning. He met the “grim monster” calmly and quietly, told me that he was not “afraid to die.” I told him of a “Crucified Redeemer” and His promises to them that trust in him, thank God. I have many reasons to believe that the spirit of that boy is mingling with the m(yriads) of blessed spirits that surround the throne of the living God. I have not the data before me to give you dates of his sickness and death, but can give them when desired. After his death I asked those with whom he had been living if he had any property of any kind, but they said nothing that they knew of. I never say anything. I procured the necessary articles, and had him buried as decently as circumstances would admit of, all of which was done by the individual exertions of myself. The public was as is always the case at such time evidently struck with consternation and alarm and every one thought of naught by his own safety.The Col. remarks in his letter that you desire that I be paid for the care of your brother, my friend, I have made no charge, there could be no (___) found by which to compute pecuniary compensation for such services, imagine to yourself the circumstances, myself and family unacclimated, all liable to contract the fatal malady, a fellow creature must die without my friendly hand to cool his parched lips, or human voice to say a word of cheer to his lonely ear, or we must take him in, expose ourselves and those near and dear to us, we chose the latter, and that God whom we trust preserved us and we say in this as in all things Not ours but Thy will oh, Lord be done, we are it is true very poor and hard pressed for worldly comforts, and should you feel willing and able to assist us any, it will be thankfully received. You can put U. S. currency in a registered letter and send perfectly safe.
With profound respect from Yours Truly,
Mr. W. C. Frazier
It was at the Falls County residence where Barron would live out his remaining years. The 1870 census shows the family in residence there and consisting of Thomas, now 75, Mary Jane, now 41, and “Travers” (Travis) Aron (?) (not listed in other sources as a child), Ellen Serena, “Lucinda,” Viola, and Lycurgus. Barron’s real property was listed at $10,000 and the personal property at $3,000. 2
A wealth of information about Barron’s latter years is provided in a day-to-day account of life at and near the Barron residence by a series of diaries, beginning in 1871, kept by James L. Courtney. 57 Courtney came upon the Barron place during the summer of 1871. He began working for Capt. Barron and soon married Ellen Barron. The Courtneys lived first with the Barrons and then nearby.
During this time Barron was actively managing a farm. He traveled frequently to Waco and sometimes to Marlin. He remained active, also, in managing his children. His son, Ronchalia, or “Bud,” left home and the Captain sent Courtney to Louisiana to fetch him back.. On 24 Jun 1872, “Paw (Barron) whipped Serena and then made them move to reids.” This was despite the fact that Serena had by then been married for five months and had the day before celebrated her sixteenth birthday! 57
Thomas Barron died on 24 Feb 1874, 1 at his residence. The day of his death is described by Courtney. 57 His remains were buried in Tom Cox cemetery as described below, where they would stay for the next 102 years. 58Febuary 1874
25 Wensday at Thads & the hole connetions was here & they buried Pa at 11 oclock we all went to the burien but ma & Ellen & they were sick so that they couldant miss yancy & mrs Whatly they stayed with ma & Ellen while we went to the burien & almeda Paterson (___) & wife mrs daten & neley they came to see me & Ellen Travis & Bety & may Harden they stayed here in the evening & Bud William serena old man & wife all went down (___) house to nite & there stayed all nite & in the evening gathered up all of Pa things & fixin to have them washed & in the evening there was a child buried near Pa grave.
Barron had died intestate; soon after the funeral the family, predictably, began to squabble over the sizable estate. An apparently bitter and costly legal battle was carried out for several years. 59, 60
Mary Jane Barron remarried just over a year after Barron’s death; on 9 Sept 1875 she became the wife of S. J. C. Bell. 3 She gave birth to a son on 18 Jul 1876, but the son likely died young; he was not with them in 1880. 61 According to the 1880 census, Bell had been born in England. Lycurgus was living with them at that time. 62 Mary Jane died on 26 Mar 1882. 3 She was buried alongside Barron’s remains in the Tom Cox Cemetery, with no stone ever placed there for her. 8
After their parents were dead, the Barron children began to pursue legal actions to reclaim some of Thomas Barron’s land, as shown in the following letter. 63
Fulton & Yeagley
Mrs. M. E. Courtney, Blevins, Tex.
Relative to the Thos. H. Barron Land, we have found Land in Brazos, McLennan, & Bosque counties and there is doubtless a good deal more but before we can take steps to recover the Land for you, your Bros & sisters we would like to have all the records searched—This will cost us $2.00 and if you desire suit instituted on the tracts already found you will have to send us $30.00 so we can the title investigated as to each of the tracts. We would also want a list of the heirs and where they live,
Fulton & YeagleyMore boldly still (and ultimately more effectively), the Barron children also attempted to acquire Choctaw Indian land in Oklahoma that was then being parceled out to tribal members by the Dawes Commission. Several affidavits were filed in the matter. The following was sworn to by Gideon G. Gibson. 64
The State of Texas
County of Falls
In the Matter of the Application of Mary E. Courtney for Enrollment of herself as a Citizen by blood of the Choctaw Nation.
Know all men by these presents.
That on this day personally appeared before the undersigned authority Gideon G. Gibson a resident citizen of Falls County Texas known to me to be a credible person who having been by me first duly sworn who on oath says That he knew Thomas H. Barron in his lifetime. He first met him in 1868 in Falls County Texas. Thomas H. Barron is now dead. He died in the year 1874 in month of February. I knew him as a part Indian, said Barron having informed affiant that he was of Indian decent and his look and actions showed that he was part Indian—I being familiar with the actions, looks, and general demeanor of Indians. He was of the Choctaw tribe of Indians to the best of my knowledge. Affiant further says said Thomas H. Barron always claimed that he was born in Mississippi and of the tribe of Choctaw Indians who migrated from there at an early date about 1830 coming west—affiant further swears that he knew Mary Jane Barron who was the wife of said Thomas H. Barron, deceased. She was in appearance like a squaw or part squaw. She had black hair, black eyes, tall & slender with high cheek bones, and like her husband showed Indian blood. Affiant further says that he knew among the children of said Thomas H. Barron the applicant herein Mary Ellen Courtney, wife of James L. Courtney who was a daughter of said Thomas H. Barron and Mary Jane Barron. Affiant further says that he knows that said James L. Courtney and wife Mary Ellen Courtney migrated to the Indian Territory with their children to wit: Mary D. Patterson, Louisa Busby, Lillie J. Yarbrough, James Willie Courtney, Ida F. Dorsett, Nettie A. Shelton, and Byron C. Courtney. Emma M. Courtney. Affiant says that he is acquainted with each of the foregoing parties. Affiant says he has good reason to believe that several of the brothers and sisters of said Mary Ellen Courtney have been enrolled by the Dawes Commission. Affiant further swears that he is entirely disinterested and has no interest direct or indirect in the result of this application.
(s) Gideon G. Gibson
Subscribed and sworn to before me (June the 10) 1902.
W. J. (___)
Notary Public TexasSubstantially the same information was provided in other affidavits. These include one filed by James Charles Campbell 65 and one by Barron’s daughter, Ellen Courtney. 68 Campbell, 102 at the time, claimed to have known Barron much longer. He was an old family friend; one of Ellen’s sons was named for him—Byron Campbell Courtney. 7 Though the claims clearly do not match the proven data about the life of Thomas Barron, it appears that the family did actively pursue the lands. Many of the Barrons, and some of the Courtneys, lived in Indian Territory (and subsequently in Oklahoma) afterwards. According to the records of the Dawes Commission, several of Barron’s children were enrolled by order of the U. S. Court. In a hearing, though, the petition of Bud Barron and those attached to his case (including Ellen) was rejected.
Due in part to the prompting of Gladys Flowers Knight and other Barron descendants, the City of Waco adopted as a project for the American Bicentennial celebration the removal of the remains of Thomas Barron from Tom Cox Cemetery to the cemetery at the restored Fort Fisher alongside the Brazos River. The reinterred remains actually consisted of a symbolic cubic foot of soil from the original grave. 67 The reinterment took place in 1976. 68 A number of descendants attended the ceremony. The original headstone was placed over the new grave. Nothing was done to relocate the remains of Mary Jane Barron Bell.
Thomas Hudson Barron was part of the westward migration of the American settlers. History has now questioned the morality of the spirit of Manifest Destiny that carried them across the land. Barron held slaves; he was part of a movement that by force took lands both from Native Americans and from Mexico. After his death, his children continued their attempts to gain even more lands from the Native Americans.
To balance the ledger, one should see in this man, also, some qualities that have been judged more kindly by history. He was a bold pioneer. He was a good soldier and a leader of men. His ambitions and ingenuity allowed him to play a major role in taming the land and in building the community.
Although Barron participated in some things that today are considered by many to be “politically incorrect,” he was one of the many who did so; perhaps history should judge him from that perspective. In his other qualities, he stood head and shoulders above others of his era as a courageous leader.
The descendants of Thomas Hudson Barron are listed from the two main sources already cited, 3, 26 and those sources will not be cited further. Additional references concerning individual entries are used as noted.Thomas Hudson Barron and Elizabeth Carnall Barron had the following children:
John M. Barron was born 21 (or 24) July 1821 in Arkansas Territory and came to Texas with his parents in the colonial period. As already noted, he had his own land claim and served under Barron in the ranger company. He is believed to have died without issue in 1846 or 1847.
Eliza Ann Barron was born 11 Sept 1823 during the period when the Barrons lived in Arkansas Territory. Apparently she never married and died childless in 1838 or 1839.
Thomas J. Barron was born 2 (or 10) Jan 1825. He married Elizabeth Crouch in January, 1847, possibly in Cherokee Co., TX. One child, Eliza Ann Barron, was born to this marriage. 69
Nancy Caroline Barron was born 13 Oct 1827 in Arkansas. She married Lewis Barker “Luke” Powers on 13 Dec 1846. This marriage resulted in the births of John Henry (or John W.), Sarah Catherine “Sally,” Eliza (not listed by all), Thomas (run over with a wagon and killed while young), Elijah Francis, and Andred Carol “Bud.” Luke Powers died 16 Sept 1869, at Rosebud, TX. Nancy died 3 Jul 1871, at Rosebud.
Joseph Davis Barron reportedly was born 6 May 1828, but this date conflicts with the date given for Nancy Caroline’s birth. He did not marry; he died in February, 1846.
Colbert Baker Barron was born 8 Dec 1829 and died before he was three years old. Apparently he was named for Barron associate Colbert Baker.
Almedia Olivia Barron was born 10 Sept 1832. On 15 Apr 1849, she married William C. Cunningham. The following children were born to this marriage: Joseph L., Elizabeth C. “Lizzie,” and Mozella Jane. Mr. Cunningham died in 1853 or 1854. Almedia married Robert Crudup on 27 Dec 1855. Their children were Rebecca Temple, Louisa, Robert Lee, Nellie Olive, and Thomas. Robert Crudup died 13 Jul 1870 in Austin, while serving in the 12th Session of the Texas Legislature. Almedia then married a Mr. Patterson on 27 Sept 1872. Three children were born to the marriage: Celia Mae, Fred M., and one whose name is not recorded in these sources. Mr. Patterson died 24 Nov 1878. Almedia then married B. W. Whie on 24 Feb 18__ in Waco. Almedia died 19 Jan 1908 and is buried in Davis, OK. 70 Mr. White died in 1907 or 1908 in California.Mary Jane Barron was born 7 Dec 1833 at Independence, Washington Co., Republic of Texas. She married John Bible in 1850; they had two children, Carolyn and Ellen, who both died young. The fate of Mr. Bible is not recorded, but Mary Jane married David Perry Thomerson in Weatherford, TX (either in 1859 or on 19 May 1861). Their children were Thomas Hudson, Robert Lewis, Almedia, Albert, Adaline, and Jefferson P. Mary Jane died 16 Jan 1893; David died 30 Aug 1897.
Elizabeth Barron was born 29 Apr 1836. Her birth was not recorded by James Courtney. Interestingly, this birth would have been immediately after the Battle of San Jacinto. Thomas Barron was purportedly involved in the Runaway Scrape, so this birth may have occurred during that movement. No additional information is available about Elizabeth.
Milam Barron was born 3 Nov 1839. On 21 Mar 1861 he married Sarah Ann Lott (who would come to be known as “Aunt Sarey Ann” Baker). He was mustered in at Dallas as a private in Co. H, 19 Texas Cavalry, Burford’s Regiment, Confederate army. 71 He purportedly was killed in action during the Civil War, but no information beyond family tradition has been found to document this. Sarah was closely associated with the Barron family in the 1870s—often serving as a midwife. 20, 57
Travis Barron was the twin brother of Milam. Both sources list the same order of birth, Milam and then Travis, which may be coincidental. Travis served as 2nd Lieutenant in Co. H, 2 Regiment of Texas Cavalry, at least in 1864 and 1865. One document states, “Horse gave out and abandoned while in pursuit of Indians near the hd waters of Rio Concho on scout with Lt. Hagler.” 72 Travis and Betty Mixson were married 13 Jan 1866. Their children were Desdemonia “Dessie,” Davis Travis (died young), and Della. Travis died 15 Nov (or Dec) 1891. Betty died 22 July 1931. Travis is discussed extensively in the James Courtney diaries. 57
David Sealy Barron was born 14 Oct 1842 in Washington Co., Republic of Texas. He served in Co. H, 2 Regiment of Texas Cavalry during the Civil War. 73 As described earlier, he died in the yellow fever epidemic in 1867 in St. Marys, Texas. 56
Thomas Hudson Barron and Mary Jane Shelton Barron had the following children. Most of those who lived to adulthood are frequently discussed in the James Courtney diaries. 57
Dink Barron was born 16 Mar 1848 in Waco (the unattributed source questions this birth). He (or she) apparently died young. No other information is available about this person.Mozella Barron was born 7 Jan 1850 in Waco. She married Thaddeus B. Mixson, who died on 23 Aug 1875 and was buried at Tom Cox Cemetery. Their children were Robert B., Josephine, Mary, Cora, and Ellen Lucinda “Lutie.” Mozella married J. M. Cotner in 1876. Their children were George, Minnie, Ida Bell, Joe, and Millie. Mozella apparently married one more time. She died in 1922 and is buried in Tom Cox Cemetery in Bruceville-Eddy. The tombstone inscription reads Mozella Mixson Petree. 74
Ronchali (Roncalia?) “Bud” Barron was born 3 Aug 1852 in Waco. He married Martha Pocahantas “Pokey” Reese. Their three sons were F. H., E. C. (E. probably is for “Enoch”), and Hamlet. Bud was sometimes seen as the family’s “bad boy,” often causing problems. Once he ran away to Louisiana, and James Courtney was sent by Capt. Barron to fetch him home. 57
Mary Ellen Barron was born 19 Oct 1854 at Waco. She married James Lafayette Courtney on 31 Oct 1871 in Falls Co. Their children were Mary Dianah “Anna,” Louisa Ellen “Liza,” Lillie Jane, James Willie, Ida Florence, Byron Campbell, Nettie Andruss, and Emma Magdalene. Ellen died on 21 Oct 1910 near Blevins. 76, 77 James Courtney died on 14 Apr 1943 in Marlin. Both are buried in Blevins Cemetery.
Serena Barron was born 23 Jul (or Jun) 1856 in Waco. She married William Jonah Reid on 25 Jan 1872. The children were Thomas Low, Mary Lela, Evaline “Evie,” Calista Olive, Elizabeth Coral, Rutha Laredo, Mabel, Pearl, Jesse Orville, Aurelia Josephine, Jena, and Theron Pool. Mr. Reed died 26 Feb 1925 in Loco, OK. It is stated that Serena married James Losson Quinn on 22 Apr 1922 (but Mr. Reid was not yet dead). Serena died 7 Mar 1933.
Robert Barron was born 26 Oct 1858 (which is not reported in the unattributed source). He apparently died young.
Lucetta Barron was born 13 Mar 1861 in Waco. She married Jim Maxey. 75 She married Pomp Porter on 28 Mar 1878. Vada Begley, her niece, stated that Lucetta was actually named “Lou” and changed her name to Lucetta “when she was old enough to realize she didn’t have a name.” 78 Their children were Wallace Archibald, Juan Fernandez “Dew,” Lyeurgus H. “Gus,” Eva May, Thomas Hudson, Hugh Preston, Viola Perilee, Henry Ward, Newman, and Robert Grady.
Viola Barron was born 28 Sept 1862 in Falls Co. She married John Will Sharp in 1878, and they had eight children: Robert Emmett, Martin Luther, John Travis, J. B., William Barron, Josephine, Mary Jane, and Samuel Hudson. Mr Sharp died in 1900. Viola married Thomas Franklin Calvery in late 1902. They had two children, Vada B. and Allen Baxter.Josephine “Jo” Barron was born 26 May 1864 in Falls Co. She married Joe L. Litteral. Their children were Mary Elizabeth, Claude Eugene, Carrie Belle, Ronkalia, Kate, Hallie, Thedford, May, and Ben. Josephine died 12 Apr 1899. Joe died 22 May 1945. Both are buried in Blevins Cemetery.
Lycurgus “Curg” Barron was born 6 June 1867 in Falls Co. He married Mattie Neeley on 5 Jan 1890. They had no children to live to adulthood. (They may have lost their only child young.) Mattie died 14 Apr 1927. Lycurgus died at Alma, OK on 17 Nov 1933.
1. Tombstone inscription. [This gives the birthdate. The original source of
information from which this was taken is unknown to this author. Different
years are given by James L. Courtney (1799) and Vada Begley (1798).
The 1870 U. S. Census, taken in March, lists his age as 75, so 1796 is
at least consistent with the census age.]
2. Ninth U. S. Census, 1850, Falls Co., TX (Precinct 5, page 44, as of 28 Mar
1870). [This shows the birthplace to be Virginia. Other sources give a
birthplace of Washington, TN (which may have been considered at one
time to be part of Virginia), or Mississippi. The Mississippi birth is described in affidavits after Barron’s death and appears to this author to
be part of a plot by which some Barron descendants would get Choctaw
Indian lands in Oklahoma through the Dawes Commission. This appears
to be inconsistent with the historic record in several regards.]
3. Unattributed five-page listing of information about Barron’s birth, death,
marriages, and children. [Several versions of this document have been
found, each coming from a different Barron descendant. One version was
annotated liberally by descendant Theron Palmer. One version was
published in” McLean, Malcolm D., Papers Concerning Robertson’s
Colony in Texas, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983. It should be
noted that John M. and Nancy Caroline Barron were children of Thomas
Barron; it is possible that earlier researchers could have confused these
people as having been Barron’s parents. No primary sources concerning
parentage are known to this author.]
4. Letter of 30 Apr 1893 from B. F. Barron to M. K. Barron; attributed to Nellie
Davis, a Barron descendant.
5. “Brief of Claim for a Survivor’s Pension,” dated 29 Aug 1981, provided by Mae Courtney Thompson, a Barron descendant.
6. Thompson, Mae Courtney, “Grandpa Barron and the War of 1812,” unpublished.
7. Families of Falls County, “Captain Thomas Hudson Barron,” Falls Co.
Historical Commission, Austin: Eakin Press, 1987.
8. Courtney, James L., handwritten notes, provided by Byron C. Courtney, Jr.
[There are other secondary records indicating that Barron (a) married
Elizabeth Steward, (b) was a son-in-law of Caleb Greenwood in Miller Co.,
Arkansas Territory, or (c) was married to Susan Mattenly, who is widely
cited as being his first wife. One source of information about Mattenly had
them married in Virginia in 1820, remaining married until her death in
1841, bearing John and Nancy Caroline while still in Virginia. None of
these accounts about Mattenly match the historic record. The other two
names are possible. Stewart could have been a name from a first marriage; Greenwood’s daughter could have been a still-earlier wife.]
9. Territorial Papers of the United States, XX. 136 – 142; list of petitioners.
[The secondary source of this information is unclear, being from page 101
of some apparent genealogical journal, December, 1975, issue. The
original source has not been checked. Patrick Carnall shows up later
in this article in the Texas records.]
10. Strickland, Rex W., “Miller County, Arkansas Territory, The Frontier That
Men Forgot,” Chronicles of Oklahoma, 18, 12.
11. Court Proceedings, Archives, Washington, Hempstead Co., AR.
12. Territorial Papers of the United States, XIX, Arkansas Territory, 1819 – 1825.
13. Tax Record, Court of Common Pleas A, archives of Washington, Hempstead
14. McLean, Malcolm D., personal communication, ca. 1981. [This conversation
confirms that the Trace was used by numerous people coming from
Arkansas Territory, many of whom were trafficking in stolen horses.]
15. “Nacogdoches October 16, 1821,” Footprints, Fort Worth Genealogical
Association, 20, 150, 1977.
16. “Petition of A. B. Fleury and 86 Others,” Memorial #7(41), File #59, Letter M,
Texas State Archives, 28 Apr 1838; reprinted in Milam Co., TX Records,
17. McLean, Malcolm D., Papers Concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Vol.
IX, Arlington: The University of Texas at Arlington, 1982.
18. McLean, Malcolm D., Papers Concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Vol.
X, Arlington: The University of Texas at Arlington, 1983.
19. McLean, Malcolm D., Papers Concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Vol.
XV, Arlington: The University of Texas at Arlington, 1989.
20. Courtney, James L., handwritten genealogy records concerning Barron
family, date unknown [provided by Mae Courtney Thompson].
21. Daniell, 1880; new material copyright—Easley, SC: Southern Historical
Press,1978. [Brown recounted the whole episode in a letter to a
newspaper in 1877, setting the time of the fight as 1829 and describing
the story told by “my old friend, Capt. Thomas H. Barron.” This appeared
in the Waco Examiner 1 Apr 1877.]
22. General Land Office Book, Vol. 9, p. 201, oath of Thomas H. Barron and
deed, certified copy of translation from Spanish.
23. Texas State Historical Commission, letter in reference to request for
Historical Marker for Thomas H. Barron, ca. 1978. [The letter refers
to a cabin in old Washington associated with Barron that was still
standing in 1973.]
24. Austin had been in Hempstead Co., Arkansas Territory, in 1820.
25. Strickland, Rex V., “Miller County, Arkansas Territory, the Frontier that Men
Forgot,” Chapter III, “The Final Breakup of ‘Old’ Miller County,”
Chronicles of Oklahoma, 19, 37.
26. The genealogy records of James Courtney and others show that the Barrons
had had six children born by that time—John, Eliza, Thomas J., Nancy Caroline, Joseph, and Colbert. Colbert, having died before his third
birthday, may have already been dead; the other five are shown to be
alive and too young to have been married by this time.
27. General Land Office Book, Vol. 14, p. 232, deed to Thomas H. Barron,
certified copy of translation from Spanish.
28. McLean, Malcolm D., Papers Concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Vol.
XVII, Arlington: the University of Texas at Arlington, 1991.
29. Baker, _____, A History of Robertson County, Texas.
30. McLean, Malcolm D., Papers Concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Vol.
XIII, Arlington: the University of Texas at Arlington, 1987.
31. Muster Rolls, Texas Land Office, Austin. [There are several sources that
seem to disagree about whether Barron’s first service was in late 1835 or
32. Texas State Archives, reproduced from the holdings, I34-9.
33. Gerald, R. J., “Benjamin Franklin Gholson, Texas,” Dallas News, 12 Dec
1925 (reprinted in Frontier Times, 4-11, 46, 1927).
34. ____ West Texas Historical Association Year Book, 17, 110, 1941.
35. Texas State Archives, reproduced from the holdings (no legible reference
36. McLean, Malcolm D., Papers Concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Vol.
VIII, Arlington: the University of Texas at Arlington, p. 142, 1981.
37. Pierce, Gerald S., Texas Under Arms.
38. “Secret Journals of the Senate, Republic of Texas,” 12 Dec 1836.
39. Nance, Joseph M., After San Jacinto, the Texas – Mexican Frontier, 1836 – 1841, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1963.
40. McLean, Malcolm D., Papers Concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Vol.
XIV, Arlington: the University of Texas at Arlington, 1988.
41. Erath, Major George Bernard, Memoirs.
42. Texas State Archives, reproduced from the holdings, I34-7.
43. Texas State Archives, reproduced from the holdings, I34-5.
44. Texas State Library, reference number unknown.
45. General Land Office Book, p. 92.
46. Texas State Archives, reproduced from the holdings, no reference number
47. McLean, Malcolm D., Papers Concerning Robertson’s Colony in Texas, Vol.
XVI, Arlington: the University of Texas at Arlington, 58, 210, 1990.
48. The Handbook of Waco and McLennan County, Texas. [The article
actually lists the date of the move in 1847, but a number of other sources place it more likely in 1848.
49. Waco Tribune-Herald, 26 Oct 1975.
50. Transfer of title, Milam Co., TX, 1841. [Interestingly, this document has the
day and the month left blank.]
51. Transfer of title, Milam Co., TX, 1849. [The document was witnessed by
George B. Erath. This would have been during the time that the Waco
town tract was being laid out.]
52. Citation and information pulled from earlier version.
53. “County’s First Criminal Case: No Record Accused Ever Found,” Waco
Tribune – Herald, 26 Oct 1975.
54. Influential Lawyers in Waco’s History,” Waco Tribune – Herald, 26 Oct 1975.
55. “Horse-Powered, Water and Steam Mills Forerunners of Waco Industrial
Growth,” Waco Tribune – Herald, 36 Oct 1975.
56. Frazier, W. C., letter of 21 Sept 1870 to Almedia Barron; original provided
by Ruby Lee and transcribed by Theron Palmer. [Writing in another hand-
writing was added: “P.?.One hundred dollars in currency” (amount sent by
Almedia O. Crudup, according to Ruby Lee.]
57. Courtney, James L., The Diaries of James Lafayette Courtney, 1871 – 1876 ON LINE! ,
compiled and transcribed as public domain material by Byron M. Courtney from originals provided by Herschel Shelton and Nora Busby Morris, 1979. [This book can be found in the public libraries of Fort Worth, Texas (genealogy section) and Marlin, Texas.
58. As described earlier, a symbolic transfer of “remains” was made in 1976 from Tom Cox Cemetery to the First Street Cemetery in Waco.
59. Probate records, Falls Co., TX. [Rev. Isaac Taylor and Mary Jane Barron
served jointly as administrators. The file was opened on 28 Mar 1874.
The last entry in the available record was made on 11 Nov 1878. It is noted that Mary Jane signed the entries with her mark, even though the
1870 census showed her to read and write.]
60. (________) Summons.
61. Palmer, Theron, notes on unattributed genealogy record.
62. Tenth U. S. Census, 1880. [This census information was provided by
Theron Palmer; the original record has not been checked.]
63. Fulton & Yeagley, letter of 6 May 1897, provided by Mae Courtney Thompson.
64. Gibson, Gideon G. affidavit, provided by Mae Courtney Thompson.
65. Campbell, James Charles, affidavit, provided by Mae Courtney Thompson.
66. Courtney, Mary Ellen, affidavit, provided by Mae Courtney Thompson.
67. Knight, Gladys Flowers, letter to author, ca. 1980.
68. [Numerous newspaper articles appeared in Waco concerning this.]
69. Memorial and Biographical History of McLennan, Falls, Bell and Coryell
Counties, Texas, Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1893.
70. Palmer, Theron, letter of 13 Aug 1980; he stated he visited and photo-
graphed her grave in Davis, OK.
71. Civil War service records, Milam Barron, internet resource, Footnote.com.
72. Civil War service records, Travis Barron, internet resource, Footnote.com.
73. Civil War service records, David Sealy Barron, internet resource, Footnote.com.
74. Tombstone inscription, Mozella Mixson Petree, Tom Cox Cemetery.
75. Tombstone inscription, M. E. Courtney, Blevins Cemetery.
76. Tombstone inscription, James L. Courtney, Blevins Cemetery.
77. Death certificate, State of Texas, James Lafayette Courtney.
78. Begley, Vada Calvery, letter of 22 Jan 1979, to author. [It is noted,
however, that the 1870 census showed her as “Lucinda.”]